Then we will see foods rich in vitamins, in each, as well as its most important and how to get better absorption functions.
What are vitamins?
Vitamins are substances that do not have their own energy, are necessary for normal physiological functions and are essential because our body is unable to synthesize them.
We therefore look for foods rich in vitamins. An exception is vitamin D, which can be formed in the skin to sun exposure, and K, B1, B12 and folic acid, which are formed in small amounts in the intestinal flora.
History of Vitamins
At the end of the nineteenth century it was believed that only foods are made up of protein, fat, carbohydrates and calories.
In 1906 Hopkins determined that a number of substances in food in small quantities and are essential for life.
But it was in 1912 the biochemist Casimir Funk commissioned to determine its chemical structure was an amine, and as essential for life coined the term “vit-amine”.
Myths About Vitamins
- Recovering a vitamin deficiency is slow. Vitamin C actually can be recovered in hours.
- Vitamins fat.
- An overweight person cannot be malnourished.
- Although no deficit have, an extra contribution is good.
- It is better to take vitamin supplements because they provide more vitamins.
Vegetables and fruits are the main foods rich in water-soluble vitamins. Oils cold pressed (fish and vegetables), are instead, foods rich in fat-soluble vitamins.
Less resistant are the Vit C and B1.
Factors which depends the loss of water-soluble vitamins
- The time elapsed since the vegetable is collected.
- The presence of oxygen in the air oxidizes the vegetables.
- Leaching: it is necessary to cook food with little water and in large pieces.
- Oxidase enzymes that are released when cutting vegetables, destroyed about 70 °.
- The cooking time and temperature.
- Salt makes the amount of vitamins leaving the inside cells is greater.
- Light accelerates oxidation.
- The presence of additives: sulfites and derivatives, chlorine, nitrites, alkalizing (bicarbonates).
- Industrial processes often destroy vitamins. They are better UHT sterilization processes (high temperatures for a very short time).
The needs are subject to specific physiological state of the individual, baby, child, pregnant woman …
Regenerating the vit E.
absorption of iron.
|Men: 90 mg
Women: 75 mg
|Fruits and vegetables,
Acerola, cruciferous, kiwi, papaya, orange.
|Scurvy (weakness, muscle pain, gums and joints)|
Imp. Syst.Cardiovascular and nervous.
|H B1: 1.2 mg
M: 1.1 mg
B2 H: 1.3 mg
M: 1.1 mg
B3 H: 16 mg
M: 14 mg
B8 30 ug
|Groundnut, pine nuts, hazelnuts, sunflower seeds and sesame, quinoa, meat, aged cheese, blue fish, legumes, eggs, nuts||Beriberi, skin lesions, eye and nerve tissue.
|Synthesis and degradation of amino acids and neurotransmitters.
Synthesis Nucleic acid
B9 400 mg
B12 2.4 mcg
|B6 fish, walnut, hazelnut, wheat germ.
B9 legumes, seeds, nuts, green leaf.
B12 clams, oysters, mussels, meat, fish, eggs, milk.
|Neurological disorders, anemia, hiperhomocisteinmia|
|VIT A (retinol)
Retinoids or carotenes
growth and development of tissues
|H: 900 mg
M: 700 mg
|Retinol: bluefish, aged cheese and egg.
Carotene: pumpkin, papaya, carrot, watercress, dried apricot.
Mal OPERATION.Sist. Immune
Alteration of epithelium
loss of smell, systemic infections.Respiratory and intestine, scaly skin
fixation of Ca and P in the intestine, bone, Ca uptake in the kidney, blood coagulation
|H and M: 5 ug
15 min sun
|Blue fish, eggs, butter, sun-dried mushrooms||Osteomalacia, rickets, osteoporosis|
Protector gentiales cells.
|H and M: 15mg||vegetable oils (wheat germ) Whole grains.||Changes in membranes and reproductive function, fetal resorption.|
|Involved in blood clotting and bone metabolism.||H: 120 mg
M: 90 .mu.g
|Fruits, greens, vegetables, cabbage, turnips, kiwi, dried plum.||Hemorrhages.|
Vitamin deficiency causes long-term diseases such as night blindness (for lack of Vit A), rickets (for lack of Vit D), scurvy (lack of Vit C), pellagra (for lack of niacin) and beriberi (lack of thiamine) is obviously very necessary to take a variety of foods rich in vitamins.
You may also like to read another article on EGoodH: Some tips to eat better and healthier
- By an insufficient supply.
- Fault in intestinal absorption.
- Biliary insufficiency
For increased requirements
- For a refined, diet low in foods rich in vitamins.
- By increasing toxic (liver helps the elimination of vitamin B1).
- By increasing oxidants and free radicals. (e.g. snuff, it takes more vit C).
- By increasing stimulants. (e.g. caffeine, it takes more B5).
- For competitive sport.
- By diuretics and laxatives.
- For some drugs; Aspirin, contraceptives, antibiotics, anticoagulants.
- By abrupt withdrawal of high doses of vitamins.
Cooking vegetables to not lose water-soluble vitamins
Vitamin C is lost by oxidation and dissolution (vitamins with the cooking water mix). While cutting vegetables enzymes that cause rust vegetables are activated, lose their vitamins, you can be seen at the edges of these since they turn brown with time.
For this not to pass the vegetables are added to boiling water. If we let the steam fill pot before adding the vegetables and then we cover, contact with oxygen in the air will be minimal, as the steam displaces the air.
To the solution is minimal play with the three factors that influence it
- The residence time of the vegetables in water.
- The amount of water.
- The size of the pieces of vegetables.
|Scalding||very small pieces||Much water||Soon, one minute|
|Steam||Small pieces||No contact with water||more time, 10-15min|
Average time 10 minutes